Human Intelligence is Social Intelligence

This paper does not define social intelligence in the sense of emotional intelligence - the ability of some people to be emphatic to others and gain a deeper understanding of motivations. Or as the ability to understand groups and social manipulation (like so-called "spin-doctors" - a form of social engineer frequently used by political parties and large corporations).

Instead, social intelligence is defined as the result of groups of people.

Or as Russell C. Eberhart, James Kennedy and Yuhui Shi in "Swarm Intelligence" put it: Traditional methods for creating intelligent computational systems have privileged private "internal" cognitive and computational processes. In contrast, "Swarm Intelligence" argues that human intelligence derives from the interactions of individuals in a social world and further, that this model of intelligence can be effectively applied to artificially intelligent systems.

This paper understands social intelligence as an emergent phenomenon - created from human interaction. While traditionally the individual is seen as the bearer of intelligence and intelligence itself is defined as the ability of a single person to solve problems successfully (invent things, solve equations etc.) lately different definitions have emerged: swarm fish may not be aware of the total (social) effects of their behavior but the protection effect of building a swarm can't be denied.

Some will say that the rules that guide those fish are extremely simple - like the ones that cause birds to build flocks - and that there is no representation of the effects in the minds of the participants. But One could also argue that this world desperately needs "intelligent effects" no matter how intelligent its single actors are! And people are not fish or birds.